skip to content

Citation Guidelines

1. Citing in Classical Archaeology and Archaeology of the Roman Provinces

In archaeological papers (Hausarbeiten) theses on the basis of existing works (literature, figures, internet soures, etc.) and especially primary sources (ancient authors, buildings, coins, inscriptions, etc.) are developed or investigated. A citation is therefore not only used as a proof of facts but also for the differentiation of thoughts and insights of third-parties and oneself.  A correct citation guarantees the traceability of an argument and protects the intellectual property of others. The disregard of citation regulations violates scientific ethics and can range from the deduction of points in the grading to expulsion when copyright infringement can be proven.

Each academic discipline has its own citation regulations. In Classical Archaeology varying citation guidelines can be found in the different countries or universities. In German-speaking Classical Archaeology the guidelines of the German Archaeological Institute are used.  The Archaeology of the Roman Provinces on the other hand uses the guidelines of the Romano-Germanic Commission.

It is to be distinguished from literal (direct) and analogous (indirect) citations. A literal citation, a passage of a text is reciprocated in the exact words including punctuation and spelling. This kind of citation is differentiated from the surrounding text by quotation marks and skipped sections have to be labelled. In analogous citations, only the concepts of the original text are paraphrased in one’s own words.

WARNING: This is one of the biggest mistakes when it comes to citing. Even paraphrased concepts or translations from other languages are considered citations that have to be labelled!

2. Footnotes (Author-Year-System)

These days, it is common to use the author-year-system. Here, the entire bibliographical information is not included in the footnotes, but a short citation that links to the proper citation is used. These short citations are resolved in the literature index at the end. A short citation included the last name of the author and the year of publication. Each footnote starts with a capital letter and ends with a period. Varying topics within a footnote can be separated from each other by a combination of a period and a dash with a space.

Authors: Two authors are connected by a dash with surrounding spaces; when there are several authors one the first is mentioned with the addition of u. a. (et alii).

Year of publication: Numerous publication by a single author with the same year of publication are distinguished by a letter (a; b; c; etc.) after the year. Several short citations within a single footnote are separated by a semicolon.


25 Kossack 1987a, 110; Kossack 1987b, 203. – Contrary opinion in Bergmann 1999, 14.
26 Mansel 1975, 70 Abb. 29. 30; 81 Abb. 43. 45.

3. Literature Index

In the literature index, the short citations of the author-year-system are dissolved. In difference to a bibliography only the actually used literature is to be added. The comprehensive bibliographical citation in alphabetical order is listed. The bibliographical information is such that is necessary in order to identify a monography, a journal article, etc. securely. In a separated figure index, figures are listed with the exact page and figure number in the form of a literature index.


Bosch 1935
C. Bosch, Die kleinasiatischen Münzen der römischen Kaiserzeit II 1, 1 (Stuttgart 1935)

Zanker 2003
P. Zanker, Augustus und die Macht der Bilder 4(München 2003)